What is the operating system and how it works?
Do you know what is the Operating System? Even if you do not know, there is no reason to panic, we will answer it and some other questions will also be answered with it.
Like we know that we are a human and a human has a heart. In such a situation, do you know how this heart works, perhaps it will not be known either.
I mean to say that just as we humans have a heart, we also have a computer, and in technical language it is called the Operating System (OS) of the computer.
Whenever you use a mobile or computer, you always keep talking about Android, Windows, Mac, Linux etc. So all these names belong to each operating system. Sometimes Android kitkat, sometimes Android Oreo, or if it is talked about Windows, then someone speaks Windows 10, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows XP etc. The same happens in Mac OS.
But everyone definitely has a lot of knowledge about all these, but no one knows what the work of this OS means to the heart of a computer. In a small feeling I would like to give you that an operating system is a type of interface between end user and hardware.
By the way, if you want to know more about how many types they are, where they are used, what are their main functions, then what is this article operating system. Will have to read it completely. So let’s start without delay and know about Operating System.
What is Operating System
Operating System is also called as System Software. Most people also speak OS by its short name. It is also called the heart of the computer. Operating system is a system software that works like Interface between the user means you and Computer Hardware.
I explain this sentence directly, whenever you run the computer, this OS gives you the means to use the computer. As you listen to the song, double click on the word document, sit down with three four windows, write something in the keyboard, and save some file in the computer, you can never do all this without operating system.
So this OS is the software with which you run your computer. So whenever you buy a new computer, first of all you have to load Window 8 or Windows10 in it from the shopkeeper and after that you take the computer to your home. Otherwise without operating system, you can never turn on your computer.
This is also a question, why is it called System Software? If you want to run User Software means Application Software in Computer then they can never run without OS.
This OS helps in using Computer Hardware well. The Operating System mainly does the same thing as takes some input from the keyboard, processes the instruction, and sends the output to the computer screen.
You see this operating system only when you turn the computer on and when you turn off the computer. You live like Game, MS word, Adobe Reader, VLC Media Player, Photoshop and inside a lot of Software Computer. To run these, you need a program or big software which we call Operating System.
The name of the OS used in Mobile is Android, which is known by everyone. You must know what is the Operating System, so let’s know about some of its work.
Function Of Operating System
By the way, Computer does a lot of work, but firstly when you turn on the computer, then the Operating System first loads in Main Memory means RAM and after that these User Software allocate all the hardware it needs from the cone. Below are the different functions of OS, know more about them in Detail.
- Memory Management
- Processor management (Process Scheduling)
- Device Management
- File Management
- See System Performance
- Error reporting
- Creating synergy between software and user
Memory Management means managing Primary and Secondary Memory. Main memory means RAM is bytes of a very large Array.
Meaning there are a lot of small blocks in memory where we can store some data. Where every address has an address Main Memory is the fastest running memory that CPU Direct uses. Because all the programs that run the CPU are in main memory only.
Operating System does all this work.
- Which memory of main memory will be used, which will not be, how much will be, how much will not be.
- In multiprocessing, the OS decides which process will be given memory and how much will be given.
- When OS asks for Process Memory then Memory OS gives it to it (Process means a Task or a small task which is done inside the Computer).
- When the process finishes its work, the OS takes back its memory.
Processor Management (Process Scheduling)
When it comes to multi programming environment, the OS decides which process will get Processor and who will not get it and for how long.
This process is called Process Scheduling. The Operating System makes all this work.
- The Operating System also sees whether the Processor is empty or doing some work, or is free and whether the Process has finished its work or not. If you want, you can see in the Task Manager how many jobs are going on and how many are not. The program that has done all this work is named Traffic Controller.
- CPU Allocate the process.
- When the work of a Process is over, it puts the Processor in other work, and if nothing is done, free the Processor.
If you use a driver in your computer, then you would know that such as Sound Driver, Bluetooth Driver, Graphics Driver, WiFi Driver, but it helps to run different Input / Output Device, but these drivers OS runs.
So let’s see what this OS does.
- Tracks all computer devices and the name of the program that makes this task is I / O Controller.
- Just as different processes need devices to do some tasks, the OS also does the work of device Allocate. Take an example, a process has to perform some tasks like playing video, not removing print, then both these tasks will be done with the help of Output Device Monitor, printer. So when both of these devices have to deliver the process, it works by the OS.
- When the process is over, it deallocates the device back.
Organizing all the directories very much in one file. Because with this we can easily find the data. So let’s know what is the function of OS in File Management.
- Organizes information, location and status. It sees all file systems.
- Who will get which resource?
- Resource De-allocate.
When you turn on your computer, you ask that password, this means that the OS prevents your system from Unauthenticated Access. This keeps your computer safe. And some programs cannot be opened without a password.
It looks at the performance of the computer and improves the system. The OS records how long it takes to deliver a service.
If there are a lot of errors in the system, then the OS detects and recovers them.
Creating synergy between software and user
- Task assigns compiler, interpreter and assembler. Connects different software to the user, which makes the user use the software better.
- Provides communication between the user and the system.
- The Operating System is stored in the BIOS. The rest also makes the application user-friendly.
Characteristics Of Operating System
- An operating system is a collection of many programs, which run other programs.
- It controls all the Input / output Device.
- The operating system is responsible for running all the application software.
- Process scheduling means allocating and deallocate processes.
- Informs you about the errors and threats happening in the system.
- Establishes good synergy between User and Computer Programs.
By now you must all know what the Operating System does (Function of Operating System), so let us now know how many types of OS are there.
Types of Operating System
Technology is changing day by day and everything is changing with it, so the usage of the operating system is increasing in every field like railway, research, satellite, industry, so you know how many types of operating systems are there.
- Batch Operating System
- Simple Batch Operating System
- Multiprogramming Batch Operating System
- Network Operating System
- Multiprocessor Operating System
- Distributed Operating System
- Time Sharing Operating System
- Real-Time Operating System
1) Batch Processing Operating System
Batch processing operating systems were introduced to remove the problems of earlier era. If we talk about earlier systems, then it used to take more setup time.
At the same time this much set up time has been reduced in this batch processing systems where jobs are processed in batches. This type of operating system is called batch processing operating.
Any similar jobs in it are submitted to the CPU for processing and they are run simultaneously.
The main function of the Batch Processing System is to execute the jobs automatically in a batch. The most important work that is done in this work is ‘Batch Monitor’ which is located in the low end of the main memory.
i) Simple Batch System
This is the oldest system in which there was no direct interaction between the user and the computer. In this system, the user had to bring a storage unit to process the task or job and had to submit it to the computer operator.
In this, all the jobs were given to the computer in a batch or line. Within a few days or a few months, it was a Job Process and an output device had an Output Store. This system used to process jobs in batch, hence its name was also called batch mode operating system.
ii) MultiProgramming Batch Systems
In this operating system, a job was raised from memory and it was executed too much. The OS that processes a job, if the same job requires I / O, then the OS gives the second job to the CPU and the first one gets the I / O, because of this the CPU is always busy.
The number of jobs that remain in memory are always less than the number of jobs that are in the disk. If a lot of jobs remain in the line then the operating system decides which job will be processed first. The CPU in this OS never remains idle.
Time Sharing system is also a part of Multiprogramming system. Response time is much less in Time Sharing System but CPU usage is more in multi programming.
1) No direct interaction between user and computer.
2) The job that comes first is the first process, so the user had to wait more.
2) Network Operating System
Its abbreviation is NOS, the full form of NOS is “Network Operating System”. This network operating system provides its services to computers that are connected to a network.
If they are given an example, then they come in shared file access, shared applications, and printing capabilities.
NOS is a type of software that allows multiple computers to communicate simultaneously, to share files, and also to other hardware devices.
Earlier Microsoft Windows and Apple operating systems were not designed for a single computer usage and network usage. But as computer networks started to grow slowly and their usage also started to grow, and such operating systems also started developing.
An NOS (Network Operating System
i) mainly has two types: –
Peer-to-peer (P2P) OS, which is installed on each computer. The other one is a client-server model, in which there is a machine server and another client software is installed.
Types of network operating systems
Talking about the type of Network Operating System, there are mainly two basic types, peer-to-peer NOS and client / server NOS:
1. Peer-to-peer network operating systems allow users to share network resources that are saved in a common, accessible network location. In this architecture, all devices are treated equally according to functionality.
Peer-to-peer works best in small to medium LANs, as well as setting them up is very cheap.
2. Client / server network operating systems provide users with access to all resources through a server. In its architecture, all functions and applications are unified under a file server, which can be executed by individual client actions, why it should not be in any physical location.
Installing the client / server is very difficult, whereas it requires a large amount of technical maintenance. Moreover, it also costs more.
Its biggest advantage is that the network is centrally controlled in it, so that any change can be made easily, while additional technology can also be incorporated.
We can show a network operating system on the basis of a basic OS that runs a network device, such as a router or firewall.
3) Multiprocessor System
All the processors used in the multiprocessor system use a common physical memory. Computing power is very fast. All these processors work under an operating system. Here are some of its Advantages
1) Very high speed because Multiprocessor is used.
2) If there are a lot of tasks together, the system throughput increases here. Which means, how many job processes can be done in a second.
3) In this OS, Task is divided into sub Task, and each Sub Task is assigned to different Processor, especially this is why a Task is completed in a very short time.
4) Distributed Operating System
The only purpose of using Distributed Operating System is that the world has powerful OS and microprocessor has become very cheap, as well as communication technology is improving.
Due to this advancement, Distributed OS was now made, which is very cheap and keeps the remote computer through the network. Which in itself is a big achievement.
1) All the resources which are far away can be easily used, which resources are not empty.
2) They are processing fast.
3) The load is less on the host machine, because load is more distributed.
5) Time Sharing Operating System
In this, some time is provided by the OS to complete each task correctly, so that each task can be completed correctly. At the same time, every user uses a single system from which CPU is given time. This type of system is also called Multitasking System.
At the same time, whatever task is in it can be either from single user or it can be from multi user as well.
The amount of time it takes to complete each task is called quantum. At the same time, after completing each task, the OS then starts the next task.
Let us know about the advantages of time-sharing operating system.
In this, the OS is given equal opportunity to complete each task.
It is not easy to have duplicasy of software in it. Which is equal to none.
CPU idle time can be reduced easily.
Let us know about the disadvantages of time sharing operating system.
The issue of reliability is seen more in this.
It takes care of security and integrity of everything.
The issue of data communication is a common problem in this.
Examples of time-sharing, operating system are: – Unix
6) Real Time Operating System
This is the most Advance Operating System, which performs real time process. This means that while leaving Missile, Railway Ticket Booking, Satellite, if all of these things were delayed even for a second, then this Operating System does not remain idle at all.
There are two types of these,
1. Hard Real Time Operating System
This is the operating system, within which time is given more time to complete the task.
2. Soft Real Time
In Soft Real Time, the restriction of time is a little less, what happens in it if one Task is running and another Task is launched at the same time, the first priority is given to the new Task. This was some information about Types of Operating system. Before this you have come to know what is Operating System.
What is a Client Operating System?
A computer desktop is a standalone computer processing unit. They are designed to perform automation tasks for people. A desktop computer is very unique because it does not require any networks or external components to operate.
Most of this client operating system is used in computer desktops or portable devices. This operating system is typically different from centralized servers because it supports only one user.
Smartphones and small computer devices use a client operating system. This operating system manages the device components, which include printers, monitors, and cameras. Each computer typically has a specific operating system.
These client operating systems provide multiprocessing power at a very minimal cost. Windows®, Linux®, Mac® and Android® are covered under Client Operating System.
Each operating system is designed to perform some specific function on specific hardware. This hardware compatibility is the most primary consideration, on the basis of which an operating system is selected for client computers.
For example, in recent times Windows® is the most commonly used client operating systems.