## Computer?

Computers and electronics have played a very important role in the society of today, where it has developed its impact from communication to medicine, science and technology. So, if you want to know the history of computer, then we will have to look at all the initial developments, we can go through it and understand it properly.

Where computers are viewed on the lookout for a modern invention in which electronics, computing is used with electric devices. But if the first computing device is to be talked about, then the answer is going to be the ancient abacus.

Analog computing has been used for almost thousands of years, on the lines of our computing devices, the ancient Greeks and Romans used the most popular antikythera mechanism.

Later devices such as castle clock (1206), slide rule (c. 1624) and Babbage’s Difference Engine (1822) are just a few examples of these early mechanical analog computers.

After this came the power of power in the 19th-century. Development of new electrical and hybrid electro-mechanical devices started, which were capable of calculating both the digital (Hollerith punch-card machine) and analog (Bush’s differential analyzer).

Telephone switching came after that, due to which machines started developing and we know of them at the beginning computers.

Following the presentation of Edison Effect in 1885, it provided a theoretical background for electronic devices. In the form of vacuum tubes, in the form of vacuum tubes, when they came with electronic components, they quickly integrated with the electric devices, first revolutionized the radio and later the television.

These were computers, where the full impact of these electronics was found. Analog computers used to calculate ballistics, they became very important for the outcome of World War II, and for this reason Colossus and ENIAC, two earliest electronic digital computers were developed at the time of war. .

With the introduction of transistor and then finally an integrated circuit with the invention of solid-state electronics, computers have become much smaller, compact, portable and even affordable for an average consumer. By now, “computers” are very close to our living conditions, whether it is watches or automobiles.

### Sequence

1 History of Computer 1.1 Calculating Machines1.2 Napier’s Bones1.3 History of Computer in Hindi – 19th Century1.4 When the computer was developed1.5 Personal Computers were born1.6 Generations of Electronic Computers2 History of computer in India2.1 Phase I2.2 Phase II2.3 Phase III2.4 Phase IV3 A Brief History of Computer Development

### history of computer:

Do you know how old is the history of computers? If you want to know about the history of computer, then you have to first know how the person calculated how big the numbers were. Small numbers can easily be accounted for by using hands, but when it comes to a large number of things, then there was a lot of trouble in them and they did not use the new system which they used to help them in.Computer types

- Computer types
- Computer usage

In this process of calculation many systems of numeration are used such as Babylonian system of numeration, Greek system of numeration, Roman system of numeration and Indian system of numeration.

The most and universally accepted is the system of numeration. These are based on the modern decimal system of numeration that are (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9). As we know, the computer can not understand the decimal system and hence it uses the binary system of numeration for processing.

Now let us discuss some of the same computing devices, which have huge contribution in this direction.

### Calculating Machines

It took thousands of years for our ancestors to make such mechanical devices in which large numbers can be counted.

#### Abacus

The first calculating device in this series is ABACUS. It was developed by the Egyptian and Chinese people. ABACUS means calculating board. There are sticks in horizontal positions in which small small-sized pebbles are inserted.

It has many horizontal bars, each containing ten beads. Horizontal bars represent units, tens, hundreds, etc.

### Napier’s Bones

It was developed by the English mathematician John Napier in 1617 AD. It is a mechanical device that was created with the aim of multiplication. It is called Napier’s bones after the name of those scientist.

#### Slide Rule

English mathematician Edmund Gunter had developed this slide rule. This machine can perform many operations easily, such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. It was very much used in Europe throughout the 16th century.

#### ADDING MACHINE– BLAISE (1642 A.D)

#### PASCAL– PRANCE

The famous French Scientist and Mathematician of that time, Blaise Pascal invented this machine which was only 19 years old at that time. This machine could easily add digits, and also carry it automatically.

#### MULTIPLYING MACHINE- COTTFRIED LEIBNITZ- GERMANY (1692 A.D)

Gottfried improved Pascal’s machine further, and he was able to produce a mechanism that was capable of automatic multiplication of numbers.

Then Leibnita became even more famous for his work with Sir Isaac Newton, in which he developed the mathematics of a new branch, which we know today as Calculus.

He invented the calculator, which could easily add, subtract, multiply and divide accurately. He was also able to perform square root function also.

#### EARLY 1800’S JACQUARD LOOM – JOSEPH MARIE JACQUARD

In the early eighteenth century, a French weaver Joseph Marie Jacquard developed a programmable loom, used judges’ large cards and holes, then used to punch them with too much control, with a pattern automatic Became ready.

The output made in it was a thick rich cloth in which there were repetitive oral or geometric patterns.

Jacquard patterns are still used. Others adapted the punched cards, and started using the primary form of input.

#### DIFFERENCE ENGINE– CHARLES BABBAGE– ENGLAND (1813 A.D)

At the beginning of the early 19th century, Charles Babbage, an Englishman who was Scientist, worked behind the development of a machine which could easily perform complex calculations.

In 1813 A.D., he invented this ‘Difference Engine’ which could perform very complex calculations and could print it together. This machine was a steam-powered machine.